IDRC - Celebrating 25 Years

1993 - 2018

Supports for complying with the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA)

How do I make my web site accessible? How do I make my office documents accessible? How do I make information available in alternative formats? Businesses and organizations read our AODA Help.

RT @silvymargarita: Thanks to @juttatrevira @telamiel @vrodes and María Soledad to be part of the amazing CAVA 2019: https://t.co/VT5doHdAs
FluidProject The @idrc_ocadu's @colinbdclark talking inclusive environments and co-design earlier this year at the Coleman Insti… https://t.co/hXo23gJ8wg
PLEASE NOTE: SNOW workshops are suspended until further notice. Funding cuts by the current provincial government a… https://t.co/4M6K4m2NT5

Web Browsing Through Adaptive Technology: A Consumer Information Resource

    Adaptive Technology Resource Centre UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, CANADA
Kevin Nguyen Tel: (416) 946-3001  E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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  • Interconnected HyperText documents formed
    the early World Wide Web.
  • Graphical User Interface operating system
  • Point and click “simplicity” of the WWW
  • Earlier text-based Web Browsers easier to access.
Web Browsing Through Adaptive Technology

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  • Graphical User Interface applications
    within a Graphical User Interface OS
  • Rapid evolution of the web led to lack
    of access standards
Web Browsing Through Adaptive Technology

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    Universal Internet Access Project
    The Adaptive Technology Resource
    Centre (ATRC) and the Diversity
    Management Directorate (DMD)
    reviewed several combinations
    of adaptive technologies and
    WWW browsers under different
    operating systems.

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  • Document strengths and weaknesses of controlling
    browsers with various adaptive tech and OS.
  • Note customizations needed for optimal performance.
  • Note keystroke equivalents of all web browsers.
  • Work with manufacturers of adaptive tech and
    incorporate their feed back.
  • Summarize findings into a set of on-line “How-to”
    guidelines.
    Objectives:
Universal Internet Access Project

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    Browsers:
    Operating Systems:
  • Netscape Navigator 1.1 & 2.0
  • MS Internet Explorer 2.0
  • NCSA Mosaic
  • IBM Web Explorer
  • Lynx / Dos Lynx
  • Macintosh OS System 7
  • MS Windows 95
  • MS Windows 3.1
  • IBM OS/2 Warp
  • MS-DOS and UNIX
Universal Internet Access Project

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    Information Dissemination:
    Universal Internet Access Project
    http://www.utoronto.ca/atrc/uiap/main.htm
  • Available in both French and English
  • On-line document equivalent to 121 pages of text

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    Helps persons with low vision
    by enlarging the screen. Runs
    atop the computer's operating
    system and applications. Some
    enlarge the entire screen while
    others only enlarge active parts
    of a screen.
    Screen Magnifiers
  • inLARGE with Netscape Navigator for the Macintosh
  • ZoomText 5.1 with Netscape Navigator 1.1 in Windows 3.1
  • ZoomText 5.1 with Netscape Navigator 2.0 in Windows 95
Universal Internet Access Project

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    Scanning Access Methods
    Configurable on-screen keyboards/menus that
    automatically highlights through choices or groups
    of choices. When the highlight falls on the grouping
    or choice desired, the user makes the selection,
    usually through a switch input.
  • Ke:nx Scan with Netscape Navigator for the Macintosh
  • WiViK 2.2 with Netscape Navigator 2.0 in Windows 3.1
Universal Internet Access Project

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  • Glidepoint ALPS keyboard
  • Intellikeys expanded keyboard
  • TASH Mini keyboard
    (Tested with Netscape and Internet Explorer in the
    Macintosh OS,Windows 3.1 or Windows 95)
    Alternative Keyboards
Universal Internet Access Project

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    Screen Readers
    Used by people with visual impairments. Hardware and
    software produces synthesized voice output for text displayed
    on the computer screen. Allows the user to navigate a
    graphical windows environment through audible cueing.
  • ASAP with LYNX for DOS under UNIX
  • IBM Screen Reader/2 2.0 with IBM Web Explorer 1.03 in OS/2 WARP 3
  • Jaws 1.21 with Netscape Navigator 2.0 in Windows 3.1
  • Outspoken 1.1 with Netscape Navigator 2.0 in Windows 3.1
  • Screen Power 1.1 with Microsoft Internet Explorer 1.6 in Windows 3.1
Universal Internet Access Project

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    Voice is the input device. Used to dictate
    text or give commands to the computer
    (such as opening programs and menus,
    or saving work).
    Some voice dictation components can
    use grammatical context and frequency-
    of-use to predict your next word/command.
    Voice Recognition
  • Dragon Dictate 2.0 with Netscape 2.0 in Windows 95
  • Dragon Dictate 1.0 with Netscape 2.0 in Windows 3.1
  • Dragon Dictate 1.0 with Internet Explorer in Windows 3.1
  • Kurzweil Voice and Kolvox Lawtalk with Netscape 2.0 in Win 3.1
  • Power Secretary with Netscape 2.0 for the Mac
Universal Internet Access Project

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  • Mini-Morse with Netscape Navigator 2.0 in Windows 3.1
  • Mini-Morse with Netscape Navigator for the Macintosh
    Morse-Code Input
    A binary code that consist of dashes and dots (or long
    tones and short tones) used to represent alpha-numeric
    characters. Used by some to input keyboard commands
    into a computer usually by a switch or sip-and-puff
    devices.
Universal Internet Access Project

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  • Columns and Frames
  • Hypertext Navigation
  • Browser Commands
Access Issues Encountered:

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    Universal Internet Access Project
    Universal Internet Access Project
    Columns and Frames
  • column text
  • invisible tables
  • multiple frames

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    Universal Internet Access Project
    Hypertext Navigation
  • Tab navigation of hyperlinks
  • create macros and on-screen keyboards
  • increased efficiency

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    Universal Internet Access Project
    Universal Internet Access Project
    Broswer Commands
  • Direct versus indirect keyboard
    equivalents
  • Key-combination memorization or...
    ...navigation of hierarchy

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    What needs to be done to increase web
    accessibility? Who do we target?
      1. Browsers

      2. Adaptive Technologies
      3. Web Authors
      4. Standards
Applied Findings:

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    Universal Internet Access Project
    Browsers:
  • Tab navigation of hyperlinks…
    ...what other navigation?
    …next image, next table, next form field
  • Sonification of Browser Events

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    Universal Internet Access Project
    Adaptive Technologies:
  • HTML Aware Access Tools

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    Universal Internet Access Project
    Web Authors:
  • Captioning and in-lining information
    (i.e. Alt text and D-tags)
  • Web site overviews, Indices / TOCs
  • Accessibility prompting authoring tools
  • Proper “HTML-grammar”

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    Universal Internet Access Project
    Standards and Data Types:
  • Java applets
  • Multimedia files
  • Plug-ins
  • VRML
  • XML

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The Future of Web Access

 

Intelligent Agents:

  • Software entities that assist a user, act on their behalf, or automate rote tasks.

  • Behavior learned from user’s previous actions,

  • Application context sensitive

  • Sharing information with other agents.


Intelligent Agents for Web Access:

  • Intelligent Agents can act as a moderator between access tool and web application

  • Different levels of Agent Automation.

  • Blurred boundaries.


Real-time 3D Web Interfaces : Scenario #1

    Scenario: User with motor deficit using switch input

    Problem: User input is too slow for real time events

    Possible Solution: Intelligent Agent presents user’s most likely choices.

Real-time 3D Web Interfaces:Scenario #1

 

Real-time 3D Web Interfaces : Scenario #2

    Scenario: Blind person using a screen reader to access a 3D Web environment


    Problems:

      1. flat audio output

      2. visually based controls
      3. slow input and response speed

Real-time 3D Web Interfaces : Scenario #2

    Possible Solutions:


      1. intonation, pitch, voice changes, tones and spatial sonification of objects
      2. user-centric perspective, quick key navigation of 3D user interface
      3. world alerts, multiple sound channels, hierarchy of descriptors, intelligent agents

Real-time 3D Web Interfaces : Scenario #2

A representation of a possible hierarchy for a screen reader in a 3D environment. The blue boxes indicate areas within the 3D browser itself. The green boxes represent active objects in a world. The red boxes represent static objects within a world. A user could specify more or less detail of any objects and quickly move to and deal with active events.

Real-time 3D Web Interfaces : Scenario #3

    Scenario: Hearing impaired person accesses a 3D Web interface

    Problem: Missing audio cues and alerts, sound effects and digital speech

    Possible Solution: Caption sound effects and digital speech. Visual analog for audio alerts.

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  • Forward thinking
  • Avoid playing catch-up
  • Pro-active access advocacy