IDRC - Celebrating 25 Years

1993 - 2018

Table of Contents

Access to Online Catalogs and Electronic Documents

Larger Context

Main areas:

The Workstation

The Workstation

The Workstation

The Workstation

The Interface

The document

The Document

The Document

Access Barriers

Access Barriers (con\'t)

Access Barriers (con\'t)

Access Barriers (con\'t)

Access Barriers (con\'t)

General Interface

General Interface (con\'t)

Transition slide

Prompting: Introduction

Prompting: Warnings

Prompting: Dialogue Boxes

Prompting: Dialogue Boxes

Prompting: example

PPT Slide

Prompting (con\'t)

Prompting: adding features

PPT Slide

Prompting: choices

Text-Only Page Stream: Wizard

Summary

Discussion

 

Access to Online Catalogs and Electronic Documents

 

Jutta Treviranus

ATRC

University of Toronto

 

Larger Context



  • Alan Cantor

    • Assistive Devices
    • Alternative formats
    • Personal support
    • Transportation services
    • Adapted furniture
    • Building modifications
    • Low-tech devices
    • Environmental adaptations

Main areas:



  • the workstation

  • the online catalog and browser interface

  • the document


The Workstation



  • consider tasks to be performed

  • training

  • updating


The Workstation



  • the operating system

  • access system compatibility

  • the introductory menu

  • unloading access systems


The Workstation



  • supporting documentation

  • advertise

  • security


The Workstation



  • large monitor

  • system access tools

  • CCTV

  • screen reader

  • screen enhancement

  • on-screen keyboard

  • refreshable Braille

  • alternative keyboard and mouse


The Interface



  • simplicity

  • consistancy

  • problem of pseudo GUI

  • front end search engine

  • keyboard equivalents to all actions

  • text equivalents to all graphics

  • text/visual equivalents to all audio cues


The document



  • Benefits of e-text

    • can be translated into Braille, large print, speech
    • does not require physical manipulation
    • can be searched and processed in various ways

The Document



  • translatable format

  • structured document

  • descriptive not procedural markup

  • SGML, HTML


The Document



  • Accessible HTML

    • layout (no columns)
    • descriptive links
    • alt text for all in-line images
    • text equivalent for all image links
    • ISMAP alternatives
    • inaccessible file format alternatives
    • use markup for format
    • e-mail form alternative

Access Barriers



  • People unable to use the mouse require several keystrokes per command.





  • Quickkeys of the form (Ctrl-?) etc.. allow faster, more efficient navigation for users who are disabled and/or advanced.

Access Barriers (con\'t)



  • Screen readers read the text within the HTML tags but omit the graphic surrounding them, causing confusion.





  • Placing < · > around the tags would give users who are blind, crucial authoring information.

Access Barriers (con\'t)



  • Keyboard users may have trouble with the non-standard cell navigation within tables.





  • TAB should move one cell right.
  • ENTER should move one cell down.
  • Shifting should reverse.

Access Barriers (con\'t)



  • The Edit Table palette is inaccessible to non-mouse users.





  • The palette should be given keyboard equivalents.

Access Barriers (con\'t)



  • Within the Frames Editor, specific frames cannot be selected using the keyboard.





  • We suggest the arrow keys be used to select a frame once the user has TABed into the frame area.

General Interface



  • Some Tooltip naming is inconsistent with Menu items.

  • Dynamic menu lists might inhibit learning.

  • Toolbar buttons donât always grey out.

  • Thesaurus is inflexible.

  • Tag begin/ending is too constraining.


General Interface (con\'t)



  • Tables: Double clicking on a cell should pull up the table editor.

  • Frame Editor: Frames with defined sources should display some sort of feedback to give the users a wider view of their production.


Transition slide



  • and now on to prompting ...


Prompting: Introduction



  • Presently, authors are often unaware that the products they create are not accessible to all.

  • By prompting the user at critical times, providing tools and guidelines, we hope to inform and aid the user in the creation of accessible documents.

  • Warnings can also be used to inform the user at appropriate times...


Prompting: Warnings



  • Warnings could be used to alert the author to a problem when it occurs.

  • Warnings should be displayed when the user:

    • makes an image into a button
    • forgets to enter an ALT text description
    • uses inaccessible text formatting
    • saves/validates an inaccessible document.

Prompting: Dialogue Boxes



  • We can extend and modify HoTMetaLâs existing dialogue prompts in order to guide the process of accessible document authoring.

  • We must consider the patience of the typical user.

  • We have developed three user settings for prompting...


Prompting: Dialogue Boxes



  • The default setting would be at the frequent level - the user is prompted for accessibility requirements at the stage of element insertion.

  • The medium setting would only prompt during modification of elements.

  • Finally, the lowest setting would only prompt at the accessibility validation stage (end of the authoring session)


Prompting: example



  • On the next slide is the sample ALT text dialogue box that might appear following insertion of a graphic element.

  • We apologize for the slight distortion of the image...


PPT Slide

 

Prompting (con\'t)



  • As seen in the previous slide, our intention is to provide a rationale for what is requested of the user.

  • Accompanying this rationale are tips and additional information to clarify the userâs role.


Prompting: adding features



  • There are more involved cases to consider, such as movie captioning, image maps, audio clips, applets etc.

  • We deal with each of these elements separately, each having its own dialogue, and if necessary, tools.

  • For instance, consider the Movie clip ...


PPT Slide

 

Prompting: choices



  • In many cases, there is more than one way to make an element accessible.

  • An image element can have ALT text, a label, and/or a D-Tag.

  • The ÎOther Accessibility Options·â allows this flexibility without overloading the user.

  • In addition to the three options mentioned above is a text-only page...


Text-Only Page Stream: Wizard



  • The ÎText-Only Wizardâ we have envisioned can be prescribed during the creation, or end of a document.

  • It can facilitate the parallel creation of a text-only page stream.

  • The wizard can automatically update existing text-only pages.

  • The inclusion of style sheets could increase the level of automation.


Summary



  • HoTMetaLâs platform is well suited to the method of prompting and accessibility validation.

  • Some changes need to be made to the authoring interface.

  • Prompting needs to be implemented.

  • Some new tools: players, wizards · ?

  • Collaboration.


Discussion